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To provide observations and information on the emerging fields of landscape scale conservation, heritage preservation, and sustainable community development.

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Large Landscape Conservation

A growing list of studies, resources and scholarly writings in the field of large landscape conservation. Please feel free to email us to add additional resources.

Online Research Projects

Northeast Landscapes Inventory

Recent Studies of Interest

A Case Study of Overall Historic Character and Preservation Initiatives: Oley Township Historic District, Berks County, Pa (MA Thesis, Pennsylvania State University) by Zachary Pyle

National Heritage Areas Evaluations – Key Findings

Research on the Effectiveness of Large Landscape Conservation

Alliance of National Heritage Areas (2013) National Park Service evaluations find national heritage areas are achieving their purpose and accomplishing their goals.

Barrett, Brenda. New National Parks in the 1990’s: Thinning of the Blood or a Much Needed Transfusion. Unpublished paper. (1991)

Center for Park Management (November 2010) Evaluation of the Essex National Heritage Area findings document, National Parks and Conservation Association. Washington DC

Jewiss, J. (2007). A Qualitative Evaluation of the Partnership System of the Chesapeake Bay Gateways and Watertrails Network. Report submitted to the Chesapeake Bay Gateways and Watertrails Network, Annapolis, MD.

Jewiss J, Laven D, Mitchell N, Huffman P (2008). Development of a National Heritage Area evaluation strategy: Report on phase I: A technical assistance report for the NPS National Heritage Areas Office. Woodstock, VT: Conservation Study Institute in cooperation with the NPS National Heritage Areas Office and the Alliance of National Heritage Areas.

Laven D (2006) Evaluating National Heritage Areas: Theory, methods, and application. Burlington, VT: Doctoral dissertation, University of Vermont.

Laven D, Jewiss J, Mitchell N (2013) Toward landscape-scale stewardship and development: A theoretical framework of United States national heritage areas. Society and Natural Resources: An International Journal, 26(7): 762-777

Laven DN, Krymkowski DH, Ventriss CL, Manning RE, Mitchell NJ (2010b) From partnerships to networks: New approaches for evaluating US National Heritage Area effectiveness. Evaluation Review 34:271–298.

Laven D, Ventriss C, Manning R, Mitchell N (2010a) Evaluating US National Heritage Areas: Theory, methods, and application. Environmental Management 46:195–212.

McKinney, M., L. Scarlett, and D. Kemmis (2010) Large landscape conservation: a strategic framework for policy and action. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Cambridge, MA

Rog, Debra J., Teresa Koenig, and M.A. Ranita Jain (May 2011) Augusta Canal National Heritage Area evaluation findings. Westat, Bethesda MD

Other Writings

McKinney, Matthew, Lynn Scarlett, and Daniel Kemmis, Large Landscape Conservation: A Strategic Framework for Policy and Action http://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/1808_Large-Landscape-Conservation

McKinney, Matthew J., and Shawn Johnson,Working Across Boundaries People, Nature, and Regions, Lincoln Institute, Cambridge, August 2009  Available as download. http://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/1674_Working-Across-Boundaries

Whisnant, Anne Mitchell, Marla Miller, Gary Nash and David Thelen. Imperiled Promise: The State of History in the National Park Service. Organization of American Historians. 2011. Available for download at http://www.oah.org/programs/nps/imperiled_promise.html

Articles of Interest

Phillips, Adrian, 2003, Turning Ideas on Their Head: The New Paradigm of Protected Areas, The George Wright Forum Vol.20 No. 2, The George Wright Society.


Chidester, David, and Edward Tabor Linenthal, eds. American Sacred Space, Religion in North America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.

Clay, Grady. Real Places: An Unconventional Guide to America’s Generic Landscape. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Conzen, Michael P., ed. The Making of the American Landscape. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

Conzen, Michael P., Thomas A. Rumney, and Graeme Wynn. A Scholar’s Guide to Geographical Writing on the American and Canadian Past, University of Chicago Geography Research Paper; no. 235. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.

Cronon, William, ed. Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1995.

Foote, Kenneth E. Shadowed Ground: America’s Landscapes of Violence and Tragedy. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997.

Groth, Paul Erling, and Todd W. Bressi, eds. Understanding Ordinary Landscapes. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Harvey, David. Explanation in Geography. London: Edward Arnold, 1969.

Hayden, Dolores. The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as Public History. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.

Hough, Michael. Out of Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.

Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. Discovering the Vernacular Landscape. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984.

Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. The Necessity for Ruins, and Other Topics. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980.

Jacoby, Karl, Crimes Against Nature: Squatters, Poachers, Thieves, and the Hidden History of American Conservation. Berkeley: University of California  Press, 2003. Read our short review here.

Blake, Peter.  God’s Own Junkyard: The Planned Deterioration of America’s Landscape,  Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979.

Czerniak, Julia and George Hargreaves, Large Parks, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, 2007